What motivates an adult to learn: curiosity or a simple need to know? Educational researchers have come up with an array of answers to that question over the years. The truth is that adults are complex individuals so there’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Adult learning theories provide a foundation to define and “marry” a learning need to its most appropriate solution.
What is an Adult Learning Theory?
Adult learning theories are based on the premise that adults learn differently than children. Here are some basic differences:
|Child-oriented learning provides a basic foundation of knowledge and helps develop critical thinking skills.||Adults have an existing base of knowledge and life experience. They seek out continuous learning based on personal interests, wants, and needs.|
|Children typically have no choice but to study and may lose enthusiasm if they are not engaged in what is happening around them.||Adults understand why they’re learning, so their motivation levels are naturally high.|
|It’s necessary to be in charge of the classroom.||It’s beneficial to let adults work things out for themselves and organize themselves.|
|Teachers play a central role in delivering knowledge and guiding learning activities.||The role of “teacher” may be effectively filled by a mentor, coach, peer, or expert.|
Over the last century, a number of adult learning theories have gained prominence. There’s no single theory that explains how and why adults learn best; however, each one sheds light on a particular aspect of adult learning. You can study the theories to gain insight into what motivates adults to learn, and use this knowledge as a building block for your instructional design efforts.
We’ve made a review of six of the most popular adult learning theories to see how each can be used to support overall learning needs.
Developed by Malcolm Knowles in 1968, andragogy is described by its creator as the art and science of helping adults learn. We’ve already covered the main assumptions of this theory when comparing adult and child learners. And here are four principles of the andragogic (or andragogical) approach:
- Adults learn better from experience (even if they make mistakes).
- Adults favor a pragmatic approach and must be able to apply learning to solve a specific problem.
- Adults are most interested in learning things that have immediate relevance.
- Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
Farm Bureau, a rural service organization, takes an andragogic approach to designing training for volunteer leaders and Board of Director candidates. The training program diagnoses learning needs and sets objectives through mutual negotiation with each learner. Participants are expected to actively engage in activities, discuss the practical value of their learning, and apply what they learn to their leadership roles.
Developed by Jack Mezirow in 1978, transformative learning theory posits that all learners use different assumptions, expectations, and beliefs to make sense of the world around them.
- Transformational learning attempts to help learners change — or transform — their existing frames of reference through a process of problem solving, procedural tasks, and self-reflection.
- Learning transformations occur when individuals face a “disorienting dilemma” that challenges their existing beliefs and critically reflect upon what has taken place.
- It’s considered one of the “stickiest” types of learning because it can shift an individual’s perspective on how to behave, interact, or problem solve.
A group of 12 worker-learners was sponsored by their employer, Workforce Council, to pursue a Graduate Certificate in Executive Leadership course offered by an Australian university. The group was divided into three teams. Each team was engaged in transformational learning to influence changes in their organizational processes and systems.
The training program included learning materials that were posted on the university’s website, face-to-face consultations at the worksite, and regular emails. All the learning units were aimed to develop a learning culture of critical and reflective thinking to transform existing perspectives and practices. This enabled the learners to step out of their “habits of mind.”
Developed by David Kolb in the 1970s, by drawing on the work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget, experiential learning requires a hands-on approach that puts the learner at the center of the learning experience.
- Active participation is key, but the theory says that learning happens only when the individual reflects upon what they are doing.
- The four elements of experiential learning are active involvement, reflection upon practice, conceptualization of the experience, and use of knowledge gained from experience.
Capital One partnered with the College of St. Bernard/St. John’s University to provide mentorship to students in an advanced global strategy course. Students met real-world business challenges and resolved them by actively engaging with the process of research and hands-on work. Mentors provided expert advice and guidance only.
Self-Directed Learning (SDL)
SDL is rooted in Malcolm Knowles’ theory of adult learning; in 1997, D.R. Garrison added elements of self-management to the model.
- SDL is a process where individuals take the initiative to diagnose learning needs, form learning goals, identify resources, implement a learning plan, and assess their own results.
- SDL often occurs with the help of teachers, mentors, resources, and peers.
- Requires the learner to be able to access and select appropriate learning.
- The learner exercises control over all learning decisions.
Tahiya Alam, a Junior eLearning Support Specialist at The University of Manchester, needed to make results on a scientific research project available online. Once she realized her learning needs, Ms. Alam consulted with eLearning colleagues and researched her options. She found that she could use iSpring Suite to develop many types of eLearning. Following the principles of SDL, Ms. Alam upskilled herself and was able to produce engaging and robust eLearning materials.
Project Based Learning (PBL)
Developed by John Dewey in 1897, project based learning theory holds that learners acquire deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world problems. Dewey called this principle “learning by doing.”
- PBL requires learners to solicit feedback and continually review results. This iterative process is believed to increase the possibility of long-term retention of skills and knowledge.
- It requires the use of diverse skills, including inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and communication.
Management at a construction company in Sweden realized that they could decrease project time frames and instill a higher sense of commitment and morale by making better use of the subcontractors’ expertise. They adopted a new project management tool and assigned teams of employees and subcontractors to learn the software by using it.
Employees and subcontractors were able to see how their input could directly drive project success and increased their level of ownership of project tasks and responsibilities.
Developed by Reg Revans in 1982, action learning is an approach to problem solving that involves taking action and reflecting on the results.
- The goal of action learning is to improve problem solving processes and simplify the resulting solutions.
- This approach tackles problems by first asking questions to clarify the problem, reflecting and identifying possible solutions, and only then taking action.
- Questions build group dialogue and cohesiveness, develop innovative and systems thinking, and improve learning results.
- Action learning requires that the group be able to take action on the problem it’s working on. If learners make recommendations only, the group loses its energy, creativity, and commitment.
- There should be a coach who helps the group to learn and work smarter and more effectively.
Florida Power and Light (FPL), a power utility company, was the first U.S. corporation to earn the Deming Prize for Quality in 1990. But before that, it had experienced difficulty with its power generation systems and couldn’t effectively convert energy to electricity. In fact, this problem existed for many years.
Finally, they called together a team of people from different FPL areas to troubleshoot the problem. When working together, the team members boosted their problem-solving and collaboration skills. As a result, they managed to find the source of the problem and resolve it.
Tips to Enhance Adult Learning
Here are some tips on how you can apply your knowledge of adult learning theory to inspire your learners.
Tip 1. Build a blended learning solution
Engage your learners with a blend of learning experiences. For example, you can mix classroom sessions with online courses to make the learning process more personally interactive and enjoyable. You can create eLearning courses on your own with an authoring tool like iSpring Suite. iSpring Suite makes it easy to build slide-based courses with quizzes, dialogue simulations, screencasts, and interactions.
This is what an online course created with iSpring looks like:
Tip 2. Link learning to expected results
Does your curriculum consist mainly of eLearning, or instructor-led training classes followed by an assessment? How is that working for you and your learners?
Most employee learning programs teach a mix of skills, knowledge, processes, procedures, compliance issues, onboarding, and other organization-specific information. Consider the performance-based outcome that the employee is expected to achieve and use your knowledge of adult learning theory to select the method that best aligns to your performance needs.
For example, a new hire in an Accounts Payable role may need to be able to use your accounting software to enter and reconcile invoices. An experiential learning approach (in a training or sandbox environment) will allow learners to apply their knowledge and skills of the software in a realistic way.
Tip 3. Formalize your informal learning
Organizations that follow a growth mindset philosophy encourage long term employees to chart their own professional development path. Adults who are motivated to learn will benefit from self-directed learning activities.
You can support self-directed learning by providing your learners with different kinds of learning content for self-study. To easily manage your learning materials, you can upload them to your LMS. If you still don’t have a learning management system, check iSpring Learn LMS. It’ll help you automate your employee training.
Tip 4. Build communities for practice
To operate as efficiently as possible, many organizations are in a constant state of reorganization. Job roles and responsibilities, along with internal processes and procedures, change often. A community of practice can help you lead transformational learning initiatives, or oversee project-based learning on an enterprise level.
Align communities of practice around higher-level strategic needs such as Marketing, Learning, HR, and Finance. Each community should be led by a coach and supported by a team of colleagues with strong expertise in the area of focus. A Finance Community of Practice, for example, could be led by the Assistant Controller and supported by team members with expertise in payroll, IT, bookkeeping, accounts payable, and accounts receivable.
Tip 5. Chunk your content
Long, complex learning modules can overwhelm learners with their sheer volume of information. Engage and motivate your learners by “chunking” your content into smaller learning modules that focus on one idea or one aspect of a larger topic.
Let’s say you’re creating training on how to improve communication with customers. You have five specific skills to focus on and you need to include videos, real-life examples, knowledge checks, and a final assessment. Completing a single module with this much information would be a time challenge for most learners. Chunking it into a number of smaller learning activities will allow learners to master one aspect of customer communication at a time as they increase their overall skill set.
You can use the iSpring Suite of authoring tools to build a variety of interactive content types to engage your learners in different ways. For example, you may add a dialogue simulation to show a customer comment and have your learner choose the best response.
You can also create a process flow as an interactive graphic with click-to-learn capabilities, or Illustrate a process flow or history with an interactive timeline.
Tip 6. Incorporate microlearning
Microlearning is more than slicing and dicing a 20-minute module into a lot of 2-minute modules. Effective microlearning creates learning activities or assessments that deliver a full learning experience in just a few minutes.
Microlearning delivers short “bursts” of information, ideally at the point of need. For example: a credit card issuer that offers a different incentive to their rewards members each month probably usually doesn’t offer detailed rewards training on this topic every few weeks. A microlearning solution that explains the reward of the month along with the special terms and conditions, and provides a link to the reward details in the performance support database would be an ideal self-directed microlearning solution.
Tip 7. Enable personal learning paths
It’s not always reasonable to make all employees follow the same end-to-end training path. At least a long-tenured employee moving into a new role may upskill faster than an outside hire, simply because they’re already familiar with the company culture and internal systems.
Incorporate principles of andragogy to make the learning path relevant to each learner’s needs. Your employees will appreciate the chance to omit redundant training and focus on job-essential skills. Your business will also benefit from this approach by gaining a productive new employee in the shortest time frame possible.
Tip 8. Align learning to needs, not wants
Business stakeholders tend to look at learning in purely utilitarian terms. They often prefer the learning solutions they’re most familiar with, and that is highly likely to bridge gaps in performance or knowledge. It’s the job of a learning professional to identify the root cause of a performance or knowledge issue and recommend the best possible solution — which may not be what the stakeholder asked for.
An understanding of adult learning theory and principles allows you to propose “right fit” solutions tailored to the needs of the learner. If your goal is to build teams and increase morale, an action learning exercise could have more motivational impact than a classroom lesson on how to get along with your co-workers.
Note: One area where instructional designers may have less flexibility in design choices is compliance training. If your organization requires each employee to complete a set number of hours of compliance training annually, you may have to work to those requirements.
Learning Theory Comparison Chart
Here’s a comparison chart of all the learning theories we’ve examined here. We hope it’ll help you select the best strategy your learning design needs.
|THEORY||SUMMARY||BEST SUITED FOR|
|Transformational Learning|| || |
|Experiential Learning|| || |
|Self-Directed Learning|| |
|Project Based Learning|| || |
|Action Learning|| || |
To Sum Up
Instructional designers can use the principles of adult learning theory as a basis for their overall learning architecture. Once you have chosen the best-fit learning approach, a robust authoring tool can help you create a learning activity that develops job-essential skills and knowledge. Download a free iSpring Suite trial and explore all its features right now.
Check out some more articles about adult learning: